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240 Landmarks of Japanese Automotive Technology
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240 Landmarks TopPassenger Cars, Part 1 > Type 95 Kurogane 4WD Military Personnel Carrier
 Type 95 Kurogane 4WD Military Personnel Carrier
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Tetsushi Makita, who had been involved with the development of the Otomo and Ares with Junya Toyokawa in the Hakuyosha Company, moved to a new position with the Nihon Jidosha Corporation, becoming responsible for the design of the JAC motor bike, New Era three-wheeler and Kurogane. This company became Nihon Nainenki in 1932 and focused on producing a three-wheeled version of the Kurogane. However, the Japanese army instructed Nainenki to develop Japan's first 4-wheel drive vehicle, which was formally adopted and mass-produced as the Type 95. Characterized by a water-cooled engine and low weight, the Kurogane's double wishbone independent front suspension and large tires meant that it was highly suitable for traversing rough terrain. * It should be noted that the joints of the front-wheel drive axles were all cruciform joints.
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Storage location:MOTORCAR MUSEUM OF JAPAN (40, Ikkanyama, Futatsunashi-cho, Komatsu-shi, Ishikawa-ken 923-0345)
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Year manufactured:1936
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Manufacturer:Nihon Nainenki, Tetsushi Makita
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Classification:Mass-production vehicle
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Current status:On public display: operational
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Vehicle name / Manufacture
Vehicle name:Kurogane 4-Wheel Drive Car
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Model name:Type 95 Military Vehicle
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Company name:Nihon Nainenki
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Year manufactured:1936
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Designed by:Tetsushi Makita
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Vehicle type/usage:Small military passenger vehicle
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Location of actual vehicle/replica:Motor Car Museum of Japan
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Model / Weight
Style:Phaeton
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Number of doors:2
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Passenger capacity:2
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Vehicle weight:Approx. 1060 kg
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Points of interest, topicality:Developed 4 years earlier than the American Jeep (1940)
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Body / Size
Structure:Steel sheet stamping
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Bumpers:Steel piping
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Step:None
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Overall length:3550 mm
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Overall width:1250 mm
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Overall height:1500 mm
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Tire size:6.00-18 in
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Features:4800 units manufactured
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Body / Axle / Driving / Others
Frame:Steel sheets, ladder type
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Front axle:Independent DWB, coil
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Rear axle:Rigid, longitudinal 1/2 leaf
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Wheelbase:2000 mm
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Front tread x rear tread:1250 mm
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Vehicle height adjustment:None
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Steering:Round steering wheel
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Stabilizer:None
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Driving stability devices:None
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Features:Short wheelbase with large-diameter wheels, large approach angle, good driving performance on rough roads
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Engine / Size / Power
Cooling/cylinder arrangement:Air-cooled/V2
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Valve train:OHV
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Carburetor:Amal type
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Bore x stroke:95×98 mm
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Displacement:1399 cc
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Max. power/r.p.m.:33 hp/3300 rpm
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Exhaust emissions treatment:Exhaust muffler only
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Supercharger:None
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Variable ignition system:Automatic ignition timing
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Fetures:As it was an air-cooled engine, it was easy-to-maintain in an era before the invention of antifreeze.
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Hybrid
Hybrid system type:None
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Drive-train
Transmission:MT4
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Drive system:4WD
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Performance
Mode fuel efficiency:-
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Reference materials:Hayashi Kageyama, Hashire Yonrin Kudosha, Sankaido (1977)
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