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240 Landmarks TopDiesel Engine > KD2, KD3
 KD2, KD3
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1. A direct injection 2-cycle diesel engine for commercial vehicles with the world's first solid injection open impingement valves.
2. The engine was installed in trucks in 1926 and patented by the German company, Krupp-Junkers. (Mercedes-Benz was the first successfully develop a diesel engined vehicle in 1924, which was a precombustion chamber engine, i.e., type of indirect injection engine, and was continuously used for years.)
3. In 1935, the first president of Nihon Diesel Industries, Ltd., Kenzo Adachi, purchased the Krupp-Junkers patent from the Krupp firm. The engine was manufactured in Japan for large trucks alongside the chassis for the trucks. They were mostly used for oil-well drilling and power generator sets during World War 2.
4. The company name was changed many times from the original Nihon Diesel Industries, Ltd. to Kenegafuchi Diesel Co., Ltd., Minsei Sangyo Co., Ltd., and Minsen Diesel Industries. Ltd. Through these transitions, full-scale manufacturing of the engine for automobiles started after the war. It was installed in Japan's first rear engine monocoque bus, and the TN93 cab-behind-engine trucks, which were Japan's largest 7.5-ton truck at that time. The large cab-behind-engine buses originally appeared as the first mainline bus between Ogikubo and Tokyo Station in Tokyo, which suffered devastating damage in the war.
5. The engine structure was a vertically-opposed piston type with 2 long connecting rods connecting the upper pistons to crank shafts. The upper pistons were set so as to be delayed by a crank angle of 15 degrees from the lower pistons, starting scavenging after the exhaust stroke from the exhaust port on the lower piston side is completed. The scavenging port was closed 7.5 degrees after the exhaust port is closed.
6. The scavenging pump was set above the upper pistons with a piston diameter of 210 mm. The initial pump made unique pumping intake sounds, but this was solved by using an intake silencer that applied a Hermholz resonator.
7. The engine was tall and has an initially low engine speed of 1500 rpm. In the 1951 model, the engine speed was increased by 20% to 1800 rpm, and output was also improved to 35 ps per cylinder. Output was further improved to 40 ps per cylinder in 1954. However, because it was impossible to further increase the engine speed, the manufactured model was changed to the overhead valve UD engine type in 1955.
8. The KD type engines were called, ND1 and ND2 in the order of their manufacture in the Nihon Diesel period. In the Kanegafuchi period, the naming was modified: KD indicates the initials of the company name, and the number indicates the number of cylinders. The exception was the KD5, which had 4 cylinders with larger bores.
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Storage location:CREATE CENTER, KAWAGUCHI TRAINING INSTITUTE (3-13-16 Yahei, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 332-0002) NISSAN DIESEL MOTOR CO., LTD. (1-1, Ageo-shi, Saitama 362-8536)
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Year manufactured:1938
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Manufacturer:Kanegafuchi Diesel Co., Ltd. Nihon Diesel Industries, Ltd.
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Classification:KD2 type mass produced engine ND6 type and cut model of Kanegafuchi Diesel-made KD2
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Current status:Not open to the public
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Model / Manufacture
Model:KD2, KD3
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Type:Diesel
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Company name:Nihon Diesel Industries, Ltd. (Present Nissan Diesel Motor Co., Ltd.)
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Usage:Large trucks, buses, bulldozers
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Location:KD2 only
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Installation model:LD1 type truck, TT9 type truck, KB3B type cab-behind-engine bus, BR30 type rear engine bus
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Year of manufacture:1938
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Designed by:Dr. Hugo Junkers
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Specification
Cylinder arrangement, number of cylinders:Vertically-opposed inline 3-cylinder
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Cycle / cooling method:2-stroke/water-cooled
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Valve type / number:Intake and exhaust port type 16/12
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Combustion method:Direct injection
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Combustion chamber:Vertically opposed piston flat head
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Bore x stroke:85×(lower piston 144 + upper piston 96)
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Compression ratio:17:01
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Mass (weight):650/550 kg (KD3/2)
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Body / Size:1452x742x1111 (KD3)
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Injection nozzle:Open impingement valves
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Performance
Max. power / r.p.m.:KD3: 66.2 kW [90 ps]/1500 rpm; KD2: 44.1 kW [60 ps]/1500 rpm
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Max. torque / r.p.m.:KD3: 480.5 Nm [49 kgm]/1100 rpm; KD2 :304.0 Nm [31 kgm]/1100 rpm
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Rate of fuel consumption:271.8 g/kWh [200 g/PSh]/1250 rpm
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Exhaust emissions measures:None
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Device
Supercharger type:None
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Intercooler:None
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Variable device:None
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Points of interest, topicality:The first direct injection diesel engine in the world to be installed in trucks (1926)
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Features:The engine used a solid injection type fuel injection pump similar to the Junkers Jumo diesel engine for aircraft. It was manufactured in Japan after the patent of Krupp-Junkers was purchased. It laid the foundations for an easily formatted well-balanced engine series by changing the number of cylinders, which is a unique feature for a 2-stroke engine.
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Reference materials:Fujio Nagao, Jiro Achiha, "Taiko Piston-gata Sharyoyo 2 Saikuru Dizerukikan No Seino (I, II)", Kikai Oyobi Denki, No.8, pp. 1-8, No. 10 pp1-6., Sept. 10, 1943
Jiro Achiha, Kiyoshi Tomizuka, "Basu, Torakku-yo 2 Saikuru Dizerukikan Suitai No Genin", Nainen Kikan Vol. 30, No. 185, pp. .29-36, Oct. 1976
Shintaro Otsuka, Soichi Ishihara, "Wagakuni Ni Okeru 2 Saikuru Jidosha Enjin No Hensen (5) Nissan Diesel Motor Co., Let", Nainen Kikan Vol. 30, No. 376, pp 36-44
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